Archaeologists were aware of their responsibilities from the very first days of the war. In The Battle for Jerusalem (New York: Popular Library, 1974), then General Motta Gur describes his astonishment when three civilians showed up early one morning at the brigade command, just as the troops were approaching the Rockefeller Museum. They were archaeologists Nahman Avigad, Joseph Aviram and Avraham Biran, concerned with the safety of the ancient artifacts at the museum. The three were allowed to accompany the soldiers into battle.