Censuses of ancient cities did not exist according to modern standards. In The Rise of Christianity (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1996), p. 131, Rodney Stark estimates Ephesus as the third-largest city of the Roman Empire (following Rome and Alexandria) with a population of 200,000, and Antioch the fourth largest with 150,000. Mark Wilson, Biblical Turkey: A Guide to the Jewish and Christian Sites of Asia Minor (Istanbul: Yaylinlari, 2010), p. 200, estimates the population of Ephesus at 250,000, slightly less than that of Antioch.