Peter Garnsey and Greg Woolf, “Patronage of the Rural Poor in the Roman World,” in Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, ed., Patronage in Ancient Society (London: Routledge, 1989), p. 153. See also Steven J. Friesen and Walter Scheidel, “The Size of the Economy and the Distribution of Income in the Roman Empire,” Journal of Roman Studies 99 (2009), pp. 61–91; available for free at