See Ladislas Bugner, ed., The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 1, From the Pharaohs to the Fall of the Roman Empire (New York: William Morrow, 1976). Note especially Jean Vercoutter, “The Iconography of the Black in Ancient Egypt: From the Beginnings to the Twenty-fifth Dynasty”; Jean Leclant, “Kushites and Meroïtes: Iconography of the African Rulers in Ancient Upper Egypt”; and Frank M. Snowden, “Iconographic Evidence on the Black Populations in Greco-Roman Antiquity.”