The decipherment of Babylonian astronomy began at the end of the 19th century. A milestone is Franz Xaver Kugler’s book on lunar motion according to the Babylonians (Die Babylonische Mondrechnung [1900]). With such studies as Astronomical Cuneiform Texts (1955) and History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy (1975), Otto Neugebauer of Brown University played an important role in this development.