The late Yigael Yadin, excavator of Masada, argued that it was a synagogue even earlier, when it served as a desert redoubt for Herod the Great. However, as Lee Levine notes in The Ancient Synagogue—The First Thousand Years (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 2000), p. 59, n. 74, Yadin’s view has not been generally accepted.