Frederick Jones Bliss (1859–1957) was the son of Dr. Daniel Bliss, the founder of what is today the American University of Beirut. Bliss had carried out excavations with Archibald C. Dickie, tracing the ancient walls of Jerusalem (1894–97), prior to his work with Macalister in the Shephelah. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister (1870–1951) hailed from an Anglo-Irish family. His father, Alexander Macalister, was a distinguished professor of anatomy at Cambridge. Following the expedition to the Shephelah, Macalister conducted excavations at Gezer for the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. He was subsequently criticised for the poor methodology of these excavations. In 1909 Macalister was appointed professor of Celtic archaeology in Dublin.