I am grateful to Dr. Ehud Netzer and Professor Gideon Foerster of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and Joseph Aviram of the Israel Exploration Society, for their permission and encouragement to publish this article. My report on the arms and armor from Masada will appear in Masada, The Yigael Yadin Excavations 1963–1965, Final Reports, Vol 5, ed. J. Aviram, G. Foerster and E. Netzer (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, forthcoming). The ballista stones will be published in the same volume by Andrew E. Holley.