For example, in his essay “The Development of the Masoretic Bible,” in Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler, eds., The Jewish Study Bible, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004, 2014), Jordan S. Penkower notes the paucity of texts in this interim: “It is especially difficult to reconstruct this period because we lack direct witnesses to the Hebrew text; i.e., we do not have Hebrew mss [manuscripts] from most of this period.” The Ashkar-Gilson manuscript had apparently not yet been published.