Details for the following historical survey were from many sources. The general history of Aleppo owes much to Abraham Marcus, The Middle East on the Eve of Modernity: Aleppo in the Eighteenth Century (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1989). For the picture of Jewish life, see also Raphael Patai, The Vanished Worlds of Jewry (New York, Macmillan, 1980), pp. 138–141; Elkan Nathan Adler, “Aleppo” Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (New York, 1939), vol 1, pp. 167–168; Eliyahu Ashtor, “Aleppo,” Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 2, cols. 562–564; Azriel Eisenberg, Jewish Historical Treasures (New York: Bloch, 1968), pp.78–79; Norman A. Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1979), pp. 105–107, 318–321.