These studies include Jehoshua M. Grintz, “Hebrew as the Spoken and Written Language in the Last Days of the Second Temple,” Journal of Biblical Literature (JBL) 79 (1960), pp. 32–47; John A. Emerton, “Did Jesus Speak Hebrew?” Journal of Theological Studies (JTS) 12 (1961), pp. 189–202; Emerton, “The Problem of Vernacular Hebrew in the First Century A.D. and the Language of Jesus,” JTS 24 (1973), pp. 1–23; Jean Carmignac, “Studies in the Hebrew Background of the Synoptic Gospels,” Annual of the Swedish Theological Institute 7 (1970), pp. 64–93; Pinchas Lapide, “Insights from Qumran into the Language of Jesus,” Revue de Qumran 32 (1975), pp. 483–501; William Chomsky, “What Was the Jewish Vernacular During the Second Commonwealth?” Jewish Quarterly Review 42 (1951–52), pp. 193–212. See further James Barr, “Which Language Did Jesus Speak?—Some Remarks of a Semitist,” Bulletin of John Rylands University Library, Manchester, England, 53 (1970), pp.9–29.