Norman K. Gottwald, “Were the Early Israelites Pastoral Nomads?” BAR 04:02; P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., “A Major New Introduction to the Bible: Norman Gottwald’s Sociological-Literary Perspective,” Bible Review, Summer 1986, pp. 42–50; Bernhard W. Anderson, “Mendenhall Disavows Paternity: Says He Didn’t Father Gottwald’s Marxist Theory,” ibid., pp. 46–50. For an admirable discussion of these theories, see George W. Ramsey, The Quest for the Historical Israel (Atlanta: John Knox, 1982), pp. 77–98.