The seminar assigns two meanings to the gray vote: (1)“I don’t think Jesus said this, but some of its content might tell us something about him” or (2) “Jesus didn’t say this, but it is based on his ideas.” A gray vote can thus be considered as a negative or a positive vote. For a discussion of the nuances of meaning in the seminar’s color scheme, and of all the problems with our voting process, see Robert J. Miller, “The Jesus Seminar and the Search for the Words of Jesus,” Lexington Theological Quarterly 31.3 (Fall 1996).