See Joseph Patrich, “Graves and Burial Practices in Talmudic Sources,” in Itamar Singer, ed., Graves and Burial Practices in Israel in the Ancient Period (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1994), pp. 191-192 (in Hebrew). In Rome, too, the poor were buried in simple holes dug into the ground; see Jon Davies, Death, Burial and Rebirth in the Religions of Antiquity (New York: Routledge, 1999), p. 148. The corpses of paupers and criminals were disposed of in mass graves; see John Bodel, “Graveyards and Groves, A Study of the Lex Lucerina,” American Journal of Ancient History 11 (1994), p. 38.