See C. Kraeling, The Excavations at Dura-Europos: Final Report VIII, part 1: The Synagogue (New Haven, CT: KTAV Publishing House, 1956), pp. 223–225; P.C. Finney, “Orpheus-David: A Connection in Iconography between Greco-Roman Judaism and Early Christianity?” Journal of Jewish Art 5, pp. 11–13; Charles Murray, “Rebirth and Afterlife: A Study of the Transmutation of Some Pagan Imagery in Early Christian Art,” British Archaeological Reports, International Series 100 (1981), pp. 115–121.