Bickerman, Jews, p. 14. For a review of the archaeological and documentary evidence of the use of Aramaic in the Levant during Persian rule, see Fergus Millar, “The Problem of Hellenistic Syria,” in Amélie Kuhrt and Susan Sherwin-White, eds., Hellenism in the East: The Interaction of Greek and Non-Greek Civilizations from Syria to Central Asia after Alexander (London: Duckworth, 1987), pp. 111–113.