Plutarch, Moralia 10 (355A), 74 (381A); cited in G. Posener, Dictionary of Egyptian Civilization (New York: Tudor Publ., 1959), p. 252. Other ancient authors who denied the existence of a female scarabeus include Horapollo (Hieroglyphics), Aelian (De Natura Animalium 10.15) and Porphyry (De abstinentia 4.9). For a general discussion, see E. A. Wallis Budge, The Mummy (New York: Macmillan, 1972).