For a synthetic reading of the composition see Thorkild Jacobsen, The Treasures of Darkness: A History of Mesopotamian Religion (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1976), pp. 165-192; H.L.J. Vanstiphout, “Enuma Elish as a Systematic Creed: An Essay,” Orientalia Lovaninesia Periodica 23 (1992), pp. 37-61. For an attempt at higher literary criticism, see A. Leo Oppenheim, “Mesopotamian Mythology I,” Orientalia n.s. 16 (1974), pp. 207–238.