We have collected references to 20 earthquakes, both major and minor, going back to the first century B.C.E. The most recent review is David Amiran, E. Arieh and T. Turcotte, “Earthquakes in Israel and Adjacent Areas: Macroseismic Observations since 100 B.C.E.,” Israel Exploration Journal (IEJ) 44:3–4 (1994), pp. 260ff. See also the original report by D. Amiran, “A Revised Earthquake Catalogue of Palestine,” IEJ 1 (1950–1951), p. 225ff; and Ehud Netzer, Greater Herodium, Qedem 13 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1981), pp. 28, 134 n. 22.