Israelite law never criminalized prostitutes, but their low status is apparent in Deuteronomistic texts such as Judges 11:1 and 1 Kings 22:38. See Phyllis Bird, “Prostitution in the Social World and Religious Rhetoric of Ancient Israel,” in Christopher A. Faraone and Laura K. McClure, eds., Prostitutes and Courtesans in the Ancient World (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press: 2006), pp. 40–58.