That mercantile links existed along established land/caravan routes as early as the Iron Age is suggested by the Biblical account of the Queen of Sheba’s visit to King Solomon (1 Kings 10:1–13; 2 Chronicles 9:1–12). See Yohanan Aharoni, “Forerunners of the Limes: Iron Age Fortresses in the Negev,” Israel Exploration Journal 17 (1967), p. 1; and John S. Holladay, Jr., “The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah: Political and Economic Centralization in the Iron IIA-B (Ca. 1000–750 BCE),” in Thomas E. Levy, ed., The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land (New York: Facts on File, 1995), p. 383.