Macalister and Duncan dated the tower to the Post-Exilic period, (fifth-fourth century B.C.E.). R.A.S. Macalister, Excavations on the Hill of Ophel, 1923–25 (London, 1926), p. 51. Kathleen Kenyon, who excavated here in 1962, and Yigal Shiloh who dug here in the 1980s, dated the tower, mistakenly in my view, to the Hasmonean period. Kenyon simply assumed that the tower belonged to the same fortification as the Southern Tower which she dated to that period (see K.M. Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem [London, 1974], pp. 191–192).

Shiloh based his dating on his excavation of a 3–4-meter-thick Hasmonean glacis on the Stepped Stone Structure. He assumed that the glacis of the Stepped Stone Structure belonged to the Hasmonean fortification of Jerusalem (The First Wall) along with the Northern and Southern Towers and the wall between them. (See Y. Shiloh, Excavations at the City of David, I, Qedem 19 (1984), pp. 20–21, Fig. 16.) However, the direct connection of the glacis with the fortification could not be conclusively proved since these areas were already excavated in the past.

Kenyon also dated a wall as part of Nehemiah’s reconstruction. But we have shown that the wall she identified is in fact the eastern external Wall 20 of the Large Stone Structure, which I suggest be identified with King David’s palace.