Bernal, Black Athena, pp. 242–243; Bernal, “Black Athena and the APA,” p. 31. On the archaeological evidence for the color of the Egyptians’ skins, see David O’Conner, “Ancient Egypt and Black Africa—Early Contacts,” Expedition: The Magazine of Archaeology/Anthropology 14 (1971), pp. 2–9; Frank J. Yurco, “Were the Ancient Egyptians Black or White?” BAR 15:05.