Although the author of John may have known one of the Synoptics, especially Mark, he was not dependent on the Synoptics, as Gardner-Smith, Goodenough, Käsemann, Cullmann, Robinson, Smith and other gifted scholars have demonstrated in different ways. As P. Borgen pointed out, John seems to relate to the pre-Synopotic tradition that is evident, for example, in Paul. See P. Borgen, “John and the Synoptics,” in The Interrelations of the Gospels, ed. D. L. Dungan (Leuven: Leuven University Press and Uitgeverij Peeters, 1990), pp. 408–37. See now the major study by D. M. Smith, John Among the Gospels (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992).