See Fitzmyer, “The Languages of Palestine in the First Century A.D.,” in Fitzmyer, Wandering Aramean, pp. 29–56. Cf. Jonas C. Greenfield, “The Languages of Palestine, 200 B.C.E.–200 C.E.,” in Jewish Languages: Theme and Variations: Proceedings of Regional Conferences of the Association for Jewish Studies Held at the University of Michigan and New York University in March–April 1975, ed. H.H. Paper (Cambridge, MA: Assn. for Jewish Studies, 1978), pp. 143–154; J.M. Grintz, “Hebrew as the Spoken and Written Language in the Last Days of the Second Temple,” Journal of Biblical Literature (JBL) 79 (1960), pp. 32–47; Robert H. Gundry, “The Language Milieu of First-Century Palestine: Its Bearing on the Authenticity of the Gospel Tradition,” JBL 83 (1964), pp. 404–408; Shmuel Safrai, “Spoken Languages in the Time of Jesus,” Jerusalem Perspective 4 (1991), pp. 3–8, 13.