The best study of suicide in Greco-Roman antiquity is by Rudolf Hirzel, Der Selbstmord (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1967). Of the enormous literature on the subject, I mention only a few noteworthy studies: Alfredo Alvarez, The Savage God: A Study of Suicide (New York: Random House, 1970), pp. 45–75; Yolanda Grisé, Le Suicide dans la Rome antique Montreal: Bellarmin, 1982); and John M. Rist, Stoic Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1969), pp. 233–255.