The account of the Sinai sojourn in Exodus and Numbers is of a composite literary nature, containing material from the so-called Jahwist (J), Elohist (E) and Priestly (P) sources, and has been the topic of much critical investigation (see Baruch J. Schwartz, “What Really Happened at Mt. Sinai?” BR 13:05). This article does not delve into these complex issues but considers the non-Deuteronomic material as a whole. This approach should not compromise the basic conclusions of the study. For a recent, detailed discussion of the Sinai theophany, see Thomas B. Dozeman, God on the Mountain: A Study of Redaction, Theology and Canon in Exodus 19–24, Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series 37 (Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1989) esp., pp. 37–86.