For a sophisticated review of the evidence to support the conclusion that Ramesses II was the pharaoh of the Exodus and Merneptah the pharaoh of the oppression (or, more precisely, that Israelite tradition so regarded them), see Halpern, “The Exodus from Egypt: Myth or Reality?”; and Halpern, “The Exodus and the Israelite Historians,” Eretz Israel 24 (1993), p. 89*.