On the view that the appearance stories were composed as “formulas of legitimation,” see Marxsen, The Resurrection of Jesus, chap. 4; Wilckens, Resurrection, p. 13; Pesch, “Zur Entstehung des Glaubens an die Auferstehung Jesu. Ein Vorschlag zur Diskussion,” Theologische Quartalschrift 153 (1973), pp. 201–208. The more recent view, that mission and preaching had to precede any attempts at legitimation, is maintained by Ghiberti, “Contemporary Discussion,” p. 247; Joseph Plevnik, “The Eyewitnesses of the Risen Jesus in Luke 24, ” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 49 (1987), pp. 90–103; John P. Galvin, “The Origin of Faith in the Resurrection of Jesus: Two Recent Perspectives,” TS 49 (1988), pp. 25ff.; Lucien Legrand, “The Missionary Command of the Risen Christ. I. Mission and Resurrection,” Indian Theological Studies 23 (1986), pp. 290–309.