That primitive Christians prayed toward Jerusalem is evidenced by the Judeo-Christian sect of the Ebionites, who according to Irenaeus, “prayed toward Jerusalem as if it were the house of God” (Adversus haereses 1, 26). For references on the eastward orientation, see for instance, Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis 7, 7, 43; Origen De oratione 32; Apostolic Constitutions 2, 57, 2 and 14; Hippolytus, De Antichristo 59.