It is also possible that “Beitin” is not the Arabic equivalent of “Bethel” at all. J. Alberto Soggin, Joshua (London: SCM Press, 1972), pp. 102–103, points out that although the transformation from Hebrew lamed to Arabic nun certainly occurs, “this does not always necessarily happen. Terminations in -el and derivatives are also to be found in Arabic.” Soggin thus suggests there may be no connection between the two names, despite their similarity. See also, David Livingston, “Location of Biblical Bethel and Ai Reconsidered,” Westminster Theological Journal (WTJ 33/1 (1970), p. 32, note 46).