Since Palestine was under Roman domination after the conquest of Pompey in 63 B.C., Latin was also used at times, as inscriptions in that language that have been discovered show. However, Latin seems to have been confined more or less to official use by Romans and for Romans or other visitors from the Roman empire. See further Fitzmyer, Wandering Aramean, pp. 30–32.

On triglossia, see J.T. Milik, Ten Years of Discovery in the Wilderness of Judaea, Studies in Biblical Theology 26 (London: SCM, 1959), pp. 130–133. Whether, however, Hebrew in a form approaching Mishnaic Hebrew “was the normal language of the Judaean population in the Roman period,” as Milik claims may be questioned. Cf. Pinchas Lapide, “Insights from Qumran into the Languages of Jesus,” Revue de Qumran (1972–1975), pp. 483–501.