Because the noun “upright” in Psalm 33:1b is preceded by the vocative particle l-, the parallel word “righteous” in the preceding line (Psalm 33:1a) can also be understood as vocative and may be translated “O righteous ones.” The entire verse may be understood as follows: “Rejoice, O righteous ones, in the Lord (Yahweh); O upright ones, praise the Glorious One.” The Revised Standard Version recognizes the vocative in verse la even though the l– does not precede it. Dahood’s Anchor Bible translation recognizes the vocative in line 1b.