The dynasty was descended perhaps from the mercenaries who settled in Egypt during the First Intermediate period. See Sir Alan H. Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1961), pp. 121 and 126; Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 3 vols. (Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. Press, 1973), vol. 1, pp. 139–145, esp. p. 143. See also William C. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt, 2 vols. (New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1953), vol. 1, pp. 173–174 and figs. 106–107.