For a much fuller discussion of the points raised here against locating Bethel at Beitin, and in favor of its location at Bireh, see Livingston, “Location of Bibbcal Bethel,” and “Traditional Site of Bethel Questioned,” WTJ 34/1 (1971), pp. 39–50. The latter is a response to Anson F. Rainey, “Bethel Is Still Beitin,” WTJ 33/2 (1971), pp. 175–188.