This interpretation has been challenged by Paul Hanson in his stimulating book, The Dawn of Apocalyptic (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1975), pp. 79–99. In his view, the passage should be dated a little later than the Exile. As we might expect, his arguments are detailed and technical. It must suffice here to say that after careful study, I have concluded that they do not stand up to the rigorous scrutiny that they deserve. (See my discussion in “Isaiah 63, 7–64, 11. Exilic Lament or Post-Exilic Protest?” Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, forthcoming)