For an in-depth study of these terms, see Gregory K. Beale, “An Exegetical and Theological Consideration of the Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart in Exodus 4–14 and Romans 9, ” Trinity Journal 5 (1984), pp.129–154. I encourage readers to consult Beale’s work because it is a critical study and it supplied much of the impetus for the present article.