For the connection between hierarchical, or asymmetrical, relations and the development of ethnic consciousness, see especially John Comaroff and Jean Comaroff, Ethnography and the Historical Imagination (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992), pp. 49–67; see also McGuire, “The Study of Ethnicity in Historical Archaeology”; Geoff Emberling, “Ethnicity in Complex Societies: Archaeological Perspectives,” Journal of Archaeological Research 5 (1997), pp. 295–344; Stephen Shennan, “Introduction: Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity,” in J.S. Shennan, ed., Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity (London: Unwin Hyman, 1989), pp. 1–32.