Shmuel Safrai, “Was There a Women’s Gallery in the Ancient Synagogue?” Tarbiz 32 (1963), pp. 329–330 (Hebrew). In Ze’ev Safrai’s opinion, separation between men and women, and the consequent construction of women’s galleries, only began at the end of the ancient era. See Ze’ev Safrai, “Dukhan, Aron and Teva: How Was the Ancient Synagogue Furnished?” in Rachel Hachlili, ed. Ancient Synagogues in Israel, British Archaeological Reports, International Series 499 (Oxford, 1989), pp. 78–79.