For a discussion of the scarab (dung beetle) iconography popular in Israel, see Sass, in Studies in the Iconography of Northwest Semitic Inscribed Seals, ed. Sass and C. Uehlinger (Fribourg: University Press, 1992), pp. 214–219. On the significance of the scarab in Egypt, see H. Bonnet, “Skarabaeus,” in Reallexikon der ägyptischen Religionsgeschichte (Berlin: DeGruyter, 1952), pp. 720–722 and references.