See Michael E. Stone, “Judaism at the Time of Christ,” Scientific American 288 (January 1973), pp. 80–87, and Scriptures, Sects, and Visions (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980). Anthony Saldarini and Moshe Weinfeld have both shown how critical rabbinic Judaism was of the Pharisees; see Saldarini, “Understanding Matthew’s Vitriol,” BR 13:02; and Weinfeld, “The Jewish Roots of Matthew’s Vitriol,” BR 13:05.