I have argued elsewhere that another model for the author of Judith is the story of Jael and Deborah in Judges 4–5. Both Jael and Judith are heroines who kill an enemy of Israel single-handedly, with a blow to the head. In both cases God approves of their actions. There are erotic elements in both stories, and both men are killed when asleep, lulled into a false sense of security by the presence of the women. Both women display the bodies of the fallen warriors to male leaders (Barak, Uzziah and Achior). A triumphant hymn in praise of God and the women bring both stories to a close. For further comparison, see White, “In the Steps of Jael and Deborah: Judith as Heroine,” in No One Spoke Ill of Her, ed. James VanderKam (Atlanta: Scholars, 1992), pp. 5–16.