Nili Liphschitz, Simcha Lev-Yadun and Yoav Waisel, “Dendroarchaeological Investigations in Israel (Masada),” Israel Exploration Journal 31 (1981), pp. 230–234. The authors analyzed 186 branches from the ramp and report that 92 percent are of Tamarix jordanis trees and the remaining 8 percent are of a few other species that still grow in the area.