See the discussion and references in D. Wengrow, “Rethinking ‘Cattle Cults’ in Early Egypt: Towards a Prehistoric Perspective on the Narmer Palette,” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 11:1 (2001), pp. 91–104; and Köhler, “History or Ideology?” Note also the useful survey Jacques Kinnaer, “What is Really Known About the Narmer Palette?” KMT 15:1 (2004), pp. 48–54. See also John Baines, “Origins of Egyptian Kingship,” in David O’Connor and David Silverman, eds., Ancient Egyptian Kingship (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1995), pp. 109–121. For a more extensive and controversial presentation, see Davis, Masking the Blow.