The exact manner in which the body was affixed to the cross is debated; for two different reconstructions see Vassilios Tzaferis, “Crucifixion—the Archaeological Evidence,” BAR, January/February 1985; Joseph Zias and Eliezer Sekeles, “The Crucified Man from Giv’at ha-Mivtar: A Reappraisal,” IEJ 35 (1985), p. 27. Zias and Sekeles note that death resulted from asphyxiation and not from the trauma caused by nailing the body to the cross.