Two clarifying articles on this subject include: A.H.C. van Eijk, “Resurrection-Language: Its Various Meanings in Early Christian Literature,” Studia Patristica 12 (1975), 271–276; and J.G. Davies, “Factors Leading to the Emergence of Belief in the Resurrection of the Flesh,” Journal of Theological Studies n.s. 23 (1972), pp. 449–455. For a comprehensive survey of the topic with helpful bibliography, see Joanne E. McWilliam Dewart, Death and Resurrection (Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1986); or Jaroslav Pelikan, The Shape of Death: Life, Death and Immortality in the Early Fathers (New York: Abingdon, 1961). A good general summary of second-century teaching may be found in Pheme Perkins, “Resurrection and Second-Century Christianity,” Resurrection (New York: Doubleday, 1984), pp. 331–390.