Whether Moloch represents the name of a deity is debated; see Moshe Weinfeld, “The Worship of Molech and the Queen of Heaven and Its Background,” Ugarit-Forschungen 4 (1972), pp. 133–154; Morton Smith, “On Burning Babies,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 95 (1975), pp. 477–479; Weinfeld, “Burning Babies in Ancient Israel,” Ugarit-Forschungen 10 (1978), pp. 411–413; and Lawrence E. Stager, “Child Sacrifice at Carthage—Religious Rite or Population Control?” Biblical Archaeology Review (BAR), January/February 1984.