According to Deuteronomy 25:5–10, when a man refuses to marry his brother’s widow, the widow should approach the surviving brother (called the levir) “in the presence of the elders, pull the sandal off his foot, spit in his face, and make this declaration: ‘Thus shall be done to the man who will not build up his brother’s house!’ And he shall go in Israel by the name of ‘the family of the unsandaled one.’”