For the past century, scholars have disagreed about whether Jesus’ preaching included an apocalyptic kingdom or whether his teaching was more ethical and proverbial, with apocalyptic elements added by the early church after the resurrection. E. P. Sanders in Jesus and Judaism (Philadelphia Fortress, 1985) found the heart of Jesus’ message in a restoration eschatology that includes the preaching of an apocalyptic kingdom. Burton Mack in The Birth of Innocence (Philadelphia Fortress, 1988) has understood Jesus as a wisdom teacher and social commentator, similar to cynic philosophers of the Greco-Roman world. The work of the Jesus Seminar in California, under the leadership of Robert Funk, has assessed the probable authenticity of each of Jesus’ Gospel sayings by discussion and vote, but their results have not won wide acceptance. The debate may be fruitful, but the historical Jesus remains elusive. Thus, similarities between the Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament Gospels do not automatically indicate a similarity between the Dead Sea Scrolls and Jesus.