The Greek term Ioudaioi (“Jews”) is frequently translated as “the Jewish authorities” in modern translations. This is historically accurate. In the trial narrative, the term Ioudaioi seems synonymous with the “chief priests,” as it had earlier been with the “Pharisees.” In either case they are the Jewish authorities. Surprisingly, in John the Pharisees do not appear in the Passion narrative (the account of Jesus’ arrest, trial, and death). And indeed this is true in the Synoptics as well. Very probably this reflects the fact that the Jewish religious party that debated most vigorously with Jesus during his public ministry did not play a crucial role in putting him to death. Evidently, that role fell to the chief priests, who in Acts are portrayed as pursuing and persecuting the followers of Jesus in Jerusalem after his death and departure.